1945

Americans have long had a sense that the country has drastically changed, but few can define that change and even fewer can point to the people and events that led to it. Most reconcile their vague but persistent fears by blaming a list of ethereal culprits: socialism, liberals, the unemployed, politicians, Washington, welfare recipients, a loss of patriotism, a loss of values. Others just look for distractions. The American psyche is so deeply rooted in this collective dis-ease our political discourse is shot through with it.

Yet no one can agree what “it” is.

Few are aware of how sinister our country has become and to be fair, most prefer ignorance. Yet our descent into fascism is well documented and, tedious though the facts may be, can be readily traced by anyone with enough interest to scry our most painful secrets. Until those secrets are acknowledged by more than handful of historians, our past will remain mysterious and our dilemma an increasingly bizarre political farce to all but the victims of our eventual comeuppance.

- Andrea Hackett

*    *    *    *    *

allen-dulles1At the end of World War II, as the Red Army closed on Berlin,  Allen Dulles and top U.S. Army Intelligence officers took it upon themselves to offer a treaty to Hitler’s Nazi intelligence apparatus. This pact, formalized for Truman’s signature as Operation Paperclip months later in a de facto insult to civilian government[1], was a defining moment in U.S. history, perhaps the defining moment . For it meant that every sacrifice, every horror, every ounce of energy we expended to stop the Nazis was in vain. Nazism had prevailed.

Only their mail stop had changed.

This illegal treaty, which stood in stark contrast to F.D.R.’s vision for post-war Germany,  allowed more than 1,800 Nazi murderers and spies to defect to the West. It also lent credidiblity to Stalin’s suspicions that F.D.R. had been poisoned (Stalin implicated “the Churchill gang” [2] ). F.D.R. died just eighteen days before the German surrender. His death couldn’t have come at a better time for the Nazi high command who faced “total anihilation” just weeks before. Indeed, F.D.R.’s last letter to Stalin, penned on the day of his death, said, “When our armies make contact in Germany and join in a fully coordinated offensive, the Nazi armies will disinegrate.”

But that never happened.

On April 12, 1945, F.D.R. died of an alleged cerebral hemmorhage. His body was interred just 70 hours after death and the mandated autopsy was never performed. Stalin asked Eleanor three times to let his ambassador view the body, but she refused, probably out of resepct for Franklin (he left specific instructions for his funeral), or possibly because she already knew what he’d find and thought it best to spare the nation such intrigue at a time of war. No one can say for sure.

But if F.D.R. was poisoned, as I suspect, I’d have to agree with Stalin. “The Churchill Gang” - Churchill and Harriman – were relentless in stoking Cold War fears and vehemently against Roosevelt’s pitting the U.S. against the U.S.S.R. would in th  wouldn’t top my list of suspects. I’d pin the blame on Nazi sympathizers in the West.

The defectors covered by this seditious treaty included the worst of Hitler’s ghouls:

  • Gen. Reinhard Gehlen: a cold-blooded, calculating, Nazi butcher who headed Hitler’s murderous Intelligence Organization for Eastern Europe and committed some of the most notorious crimes of the war. Gehlen endeared himself to the West by pledging his exaggerated assets to our anti-Soviet crusade while working to exacerbate East-West tensions and divert attention from the ODESSA Nazis.[1] He was extremely close to Allen Dulles who gifted him a Swiss chalet when the General retired.[2]

  • Gehlen’s Organization: “at least 100… SD and former Gestapo officers” according to documents released under the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act,[3] a description which falls far short of the mark. In fact Gehlen’s organization, overseen by a myriad of U.S. intelligence agencies after the war and directed under the auspices of the C.I.A. afterward (when Gehlen was code-named, Dr. Schneider), numbered closer to 4,000 spies, agents and transmission specialists who extended all across Eastern Europe. Gehlen’s Organization (code-named RUSTY) was our premier intelligence gathering apparatus during the Cold War and even when subsumed into the U.S.-German “7821 Composite Group,” provided the bulk of our intelligence on Soviet Russia from 1945-1953. It included the Ukranian émigré organization OUN which later became the ABN in Hungaray headed by Ferenc Nagy, former Nazi collaborator who also headed the C.I.A.-run Permindex Corporation in Rome which, coincidentally, had Clay Shaw (indicted for JFK’s assassination) among its Board of Directors. Gehlen’s apparatus was at all times under the command of U.S. Intelligence
  • George deMohrenschildt: Nazi spy who went to work for the C.I.A., most infamously employed as Lee Harvey Oswald’s “babysitter” in Dallas. He was the first person to greet Lee Oswald and his wife Marina when they returned from Russia. He also “introduced” the couple to Ruth and Michael Paine who were gracious enough to procure Lee his job in the Texas Book Depository which, as Noel Twyman put it, “just happened to overlook J.F.K.’s motorcade route in Dealey Plaza.” He was a member of the rabidly right wing Petroleum Club in Dallas, close friends with H.L. Hunt [4], Lester Logue, Howard K. Davis and General Edwin Walker (all tied to J.F.K.’s assassination) and was seen in the company of Gerald “Gerry” Patrick Hemming, a former C.I.A. operative on the fringe of the J.F.K. plot with extensive involvement in C.I.A. assassination operations and tradework. If that isn’t enough to suggest some involvement in J.F.K.’s murder, deMohrenschildt committed suicide the day after his daughter was contacted by Gaeton Fonzi, investigator for the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) for an interview.[5]
  • Emil Augsburg[6] an officer at the infamous Wannasee Insitute where he helped craft the Final Solution, Hitler’s plan to exterminate the Jews and other undesirables.
  • “At least five associates of the Adolf Eichmann”[7] the notorious leader of Hitler’s Amt/IV B4 who implemented the Holocaust through RSHA and authorized the deportation and murder of at least 4,000,000 Jews. Eichmann, arguably the most notorious mass murderer in history, claimed “6,000,000 deaths” to his superior, Heinrich Himmler, who complained that the extermination was moving too slowly.
  • Hans Globke: a lawyer in Hitler’s Internal Ministry and close associate of Eichmann who authored the infamous Nuremburg race laws,[8] the “Codex of Jewish Law” which legalized the expropriation and repression of the Jews, “The Law For Protection of German Blood and German Honour,” “Law For The Protection of Genetic Health of the German People” and other rabidly anti-Semetic legislation. Globke remained in West Germany after the war as Chancellor Konrad Adenaur’s right-hand man (his past safely guarded by the C.I.A.) and used his position to help many former Nazi officials gain prominent posts in the government
  • Kurt Blome: In 1945, Blome told Army interrogators he was ordered to perform ghastly experiments on concentration camp victims by injecting them with Black Plague! He was acquitted at Nuremburg and subsequently offered a lucrative postion with the U.S. Army Chemical Corps in 1951 making chemical weapons
  • Major General Walter Schreiber: According to Linda Hunt, prosecutors at Nuremburg presented evidence that Schreiber assigned doctors to perform hideous medical experiments on concentration camp victims during the war and made funds available for those experiments. But he was in Soviet hands at the time and unavailable to answer the charges. That was good enough for the Air Force School of Medicine at Randolph Field, Texas who offered him a job the moment as he mysteriously appeared on U.S. soil. It wasn’t until Drew Pearson exposed his gruesome past in 1952 that the J.I.O.A. stepped in and had him safely (and quietly) whisked to Argentina.
  • Seigfried Ruff:  Ruff was barely acquitted at Nuremburg on charges he killed more than 80 prisoners at Dachau in a pressure chamber designed to emulate altitudes of 60,000 feet. In appreciation for his incalculable contribution to science, the U.S. Army paid him handsomely to document his shop of horrors
  • Arthur Rudolph: originally classified as a “menace to the security of Allied Forces” [9]

    Hubertus Strughold

    Hubertus Strughold

  • Hubertus Stronghold: originally classified as a “menace to the security ofAllied Forces,” he became NASA’s chief scientist at the agency’s Aerospace Medical Division, no doubt because of the horrific medical attrocities he supervised under Hitler including high level altitude and freezing experiments on prisoners at Dachau.
  • Hermann Becker-Freysing and Seigfried Ruff: Becker-Freysing, Ruff and Kurt Blome were among 23 defendents at Nuremburg whose medical attrocities horrified the world. Becker-Freysing was convicted of starving Dachau prisoners to death and feeding them sea water chemically altered to make it drinkable. He was sentenced to 20 years. He, too, was paid by the Army to document the results of his experiments
  • Dozens of Nazi doctors and psychiatrists whose ghastly medical experiments and attrocities were simply ignored. These so-called psychiatrists would later be used in C.I.A. mind control experiments such as MK-ULTRA and Jonestown in Guyana as well as the agency’s attempts to create robot assassins to further the legacy of Der Fuhrer’s S.S.
An impressive list of ghouls even by today’s standards.

Reinhard GehlenIn his book, Blowback, Christopher Simpson describes Gehlen as the “most important of all” with an “arrogant demeanor,” “violent temper,” “extraordinary powers of concentration” and “a jeweler’s attention to detail.” And the Army clearly agreed because he was paid the amazing sum of $200,000 at the time to keep his spy network intact and focused on the Bolshevik threat.

In the “Report of Initial Contacts with General Gehlen’s Organization” by Capt. John R. Boker, Jr., released as part of 27,000 secret documents declassified by the C.I.A., Boker tells of his first meeting with Gehlen in “early June, 1945” at the von Bergen House on the Bodenstedstrasse in Weisbaden where Gehlen was being held for interrogation. According to Boker, Gehlen made a profound impression on him during that and subsequent meetings, and he reports that he “convinced higher-ups” to permit him to reassemble Gehlen’s entire organization from the POWs being held at allied camps.

Boker writes: “By the middle of July, 1945 we had succeeded in reconstructing General Gehlen’s key members  and staff, all his important documents and were very much aware of the gold mine we had found… The problem now was convincing higher American authority as to the value of our enterprise.”

“We” refers to General Betts and Col. W. R. Philp, Chief of the 12th Army Group’s Interrogation Center who approved Boker’s efforts to reassemble Gehlen’s scattered organization and retrieve the intelligence Gehlen had secreted (just for us) in Southern Germany. Brigadier General Edwin L. Sibert was informed on their progress, according to a secret memorandum released by the C.I.A.

Higher American authority” refers to the Commander in Chief, President Truman, F.D.R.’s milquetoast successor who was given Operation Paperclip for approval in August 1945 to provide cover for the Office of Strategic Services (O.S.S.) who had been colluding with the Nazis since before the war’s end. It certainly doesn’t refer to Gens. Bradley, Smith or Eisenhower who were staunchly opposed to any plan to employ Nazis.[10] And it certainly doesn’t refer to the Joint Chiefs of Staff or O.S.S., who were in no need of convincing.  The O.S.S., with Wild Bill Donovan and Allen Dulles at the helm, were up to their necks in Nazi intrigue. Allen Dulles was made Chief of the O.S.S. Mission to Germany on June 8, 1945 (the exact moment Boker had his first meeting with Gehlen) and Dulles bowed to no “higher American authority.” It was Dulles, not Gen. Sibert as the C.I.A. documents suggest, that offered asylum to Gehlen and his Nazi thugs.

And Gehlen wasn’t the only high level Nazi intelligence officer making deals. They all were. In his book, Battleground in Berlin: C.I.A. vs K.G.B. in the Cold War, David E. Murphy tells of SS Sturmbahnfuehrer Wilhelm Hoettl, chief of SS intelligence operations in southeastern Europe who “volunteered his efforts to the O.S.S., described the remnants of his networks, and led O.S.S. to his radio communications center in Austria.”[11]  Information like this might have been made interesting reading for, say, a civilian president with the task of protecting the country from enemies within and without.

Wouldn’t you think?

But then Truman was never that kind of guy. Despite his tough talk and populist rhetoric, his purported fear that the Executive Branch had lost control of the military, and his high-profile firing of General MacArthur, Truman did more to aggregate our ascension to a military state than any other president before him. From Operation Paperclip to his creation of the C.I.A. From our involvement in Korea to the atomic bombs he agreed to drop on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Truman was always ready, pen in hand.

So Boker’s reference to “higher American authority” was a reference to Truman. Though (and Boker couldn’t know this) Truman didn’t need much convincing. He approved Operation Paperclip with a self-serving caveat (like Judas washing his hands) that anyone who had “been a member of the Nazi Party, and more than a normal participant in its activities, or an active supporter of Nazi militarism” be excuded from the operation. Then somehow missed the fact that Gehlen was brought to the United States that very month… to Washington, D.C. no less! He also somehow missed the fact that thousands of former Nazis emigrated in the months and years that followed.

But then, that was part of the plan.

Truman wasn’t F.D.R.’s first choice. No. Roosevelt picked Truman as his running mate only after considerable prodding by a cabal of party insiders who wanted anyone but his Vice President, Henry Wallace, to succeed him upon his death (which, though I suspect he was poisoned, was a distinct possibility). Wallace was anti-fascist to the core and dispised by the Right for his “socialist” agricultural policies. He was also a progressive, nominated by the Progressive Party, and once equated the American and Russian revolutions as both “part of the march to freedom.”

Not the kind of guy you’d pick if you wanted a fascist regime.

So a select group of Democratic Party insiders worked on Franklin. One of them, curiously enough, was Edwin Pawley, a wealthy oilman who was Director of the Democratic National Committee at the time. Pawley had worked his way up from fundraiser to top man in the Democratic Party in just four years and become quite chummy with Truman along the way (a relationship I characterize as a double agent with a ready patsy in his crosshairs). When F.D.R.’s fragility became an issue at the 1944 Democratic Convention, Pawley saw his opportunity to kill two birds with one stone. He gathered his cabal and promoted the ineffectual Truman like crazy.

His efforts paid off like a slot machine.

When F.D.R. died, Truman repaid his “dear friend” by making him U.S. Representative to the Allied Reparations Committee (1945-47) where, as ambassador to the Potsdam Conference, he renegotiated the agreements made by Roosevelt at Yalta, effectively ending any chance for a post-war peace to the extraordinary benefit of Allen Dulles, the Nazis and the C.I.A. He later became financially involved with George Bush, Sr. though Bush’s Zapata Corporation (a C.I.A. front) which, among other things, laundered money for Nixon’s Watergate plumbers. The plumbers, you may recall, included Frank Sturgis and E. Howard Hunt who have both been inextricably linked to the J.F.K. assassination.

So Pawley was clearly furthering a sinister agenda when he promoted the “soft spoken,” ineffectual Truman to be F.D.R.’s running mate.

But there were bigger fish calling the shots, fish who’d been itching for F.D.R.’s death to align American foreign policy with the Nazis; fish like W. Averill Harrimann who was appointed U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union by Truman despite (or because of) the fact that he ran the notorious Union Bank in New York which funneled millions of dollars to Hitler’s coffers in direct violation of the Giving Aid and Comfort to the Enemy Act (Union Bank, in case you missed the first article I wrote in this series, was owned entirely by Fritz “I Paid Hitler” Thyssen who practically bankrolled the rise of the Third Reich single-handedly. It was also run by Prescott Bush, W’s granddaddy). [12]

Also calling the shots were fish like General John Deane who ran the U.S. Embassy in Moscow as Commanding General of the U.S. Military Mission and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[13] and Gen. Edwin L. Seibert who was fully aware of the Gehlen operation in June 1945 and never bothered to inform Gens. Eisenhower, Bradley or Smith.[14]

Then there was Gen. Douglas MacArthur who actually made himself Viceroy of Japan in 1945. MacArthur’s intelligence apparatus in the Far East was so extensive it provided 90% of the intelligence received by the Pentagon. So he could spin the intel however he wanted (a double-edged sword that contributed to his eventual dismissal). MacArthur’s intelligence network was run by Charles Willoughby aka Adolph Tschepp-Weidenbach, MacArthur’s Chief of Intelligence  who he fondly referred to as “my little fascist.” Indeed, MacArthur’s intelligence organization was fertile ground for burgeoning fascists. William Potter Gale, a MacArthur aide, brought the Christian Identity movement to the United States (Jews are the spawn of Satan, etc.). Willoughby himself had direct ties to J.F.K.’s assassination plot. Much has been made of Truman firing Gen. MacArthur and it’s been held up as proof of Truman’s staunch defense of the Republic. But Truman had little choice in the matter. Six months earlier General Patton promoted himself in the field to a four star general, ignoring senate approval with his infamous rejoinder, “They have their schedule, I have mine.” Truman was backed into a corner and did the only thing he could to save face.

So the fact that Boker (an Army Captain) had completed working with Gehlen to reassemble his entire Nazi intelligence organization by “the middle of July, 1945,” may be shocking, but it isn’t surprising. From the perspective of his superiors, a task so blatantly illegal would be best left in the hands of a low ranking officer. What’s surprising – indeed, what calls Boker’s whole credibility into question – is his claim that the problem was to “[convince an] higher American authority as to the value of our enterprise.” That smacks of a C.I.A. editor trying to put a democratic spin on an act of treason. Boker’s superiors never sought approval from Truman or anyone else before they approved reassembling Hitler’s entire intelligence organization in Eastern Europe. Why would they need approval now? Why would they need the approval of generals who would go ballistic if they knew these rogue elements had reassembled what took them the whole war and thousands of lives to tear down?

They wouldn’t and they didn’t.

1945 marked the birth of a shadow government in the United States, a government comprised of military intelligence offficers from the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the U.S. Armed Forces combined into the Joint Intelligence Committee (J.I.C.), and a subcommitee called the Joint Intelligence Objectives Committee (J.I.O.C.), overseen by the O.S.S. to implement Operation Paperclip. We can’t understand our current dilemma without understanding how our democracy was hijacked.

Now before I continue, a word about the eight million pages of documentation declassifed by the C.I.A. under the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act of 1998. Though I draw liberally from these documents, it’s important to note that they had to be pried from C.I.A. hands by the Nazi War Criminals Records Interagency Work Group (IWG) established by Executive Order by President Clinton in 1998. Richard Ben-Veniste, a member of the IWG, echoed the group’s frustration aptly when he testified to the Subcommitte on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations Committee on Government Reform of the U.S. House of Representatives on March 2, 2005: “…depsite the fact that relevant records are in some cases more than 50 years old, the C.I.A. balked at full compliance, causing a delay of more than a year in the IWG’s work.”

I know. A real shocker.

The point is, anything could have happened to the documentation during that period, up to and including the production of fictitous documents that cast the agency in a better light. As I’ve stated, I find it hard to believe that an Army Captain like Boker, an interrogator, had to “convince higher American authority” to approve the de facto reassembly of Gehlen’s organization at a time when hundreds, if not thousands, of Nazis were being granted citizenship under aliases created by the J.O.I.C. Other documents in this release suffer a similar incredulity. In “Forging an Intelligence Parternship: C.I.A. and the Origins of the BND 1945-49,” released in 2002, the C.I.A. is described as having a “lack of enthusiasm” toward Gehlen’s organization and quotes a C.I.A. officer updating Richard Helms as being “concerned about the political implications of sponsoring an organization that in the opinion of qualified observers constitutes a re-activation of the German Abwehr under American aegis.” [15]

Excuse me while I stop laughing.

The suggestion that a C.I.A. officer, any C.I.A. officer, found it necessary to “update” Richard Helms with a newsflash amounting to: “Oh, my God! We’re working with Nazis! What will people think?” is so ludicrous it’s laughable.

So I draw from these documents to some degree, but I take them, like anything the agency releases, with a large grain of salt. And the devil is in the details, like Boker’s admission that Gehlen’s organization had been completely reassembled by “…the middle of July, 1945.” That was six weeks before our elected U.S. president was advised that Nazi collusion with top U.S. intelligence officers was in the offing, much less under way. And Truman certainly wasn’t advised that Hitler’s entire intelligence apparatus in Eastern Europe had been revived intact and was being funded by taxpayer dollars!

He may have been inept, but I’m not ready to believe he knew about that one.

No. That was the J.O.I.C. under Wild Bill Donovan and Allen Dulles’s watchful eye at O.S.S. They were well aware that Truman, like F.D.R., would have shut the operation down had he known. So they took great pains to circumvent the letter of the law by quietly “cleansing” the dossiers of over 1,500 Nazi scientists, engineers, technicians and officers before granting them top level security clearances. Indeed, the term “paperclip” came from the paperclips used to bind Nazi criminals’ fictious backgrounds to their actual backgrounds in J.O.I.A. personnel files.

Someone somewhere had to be smiling about that one.

Determining Who Was Who

Toward the end of the war, as the race across Germany accelerated, the race to find Hitler’s technologically-advanced weapons and scientists accelerated, too. By 1945, more than thirty intelligence-gathering organizations, including Air Technical Intelligence (ATI), were competing for  The Reich’s hidden secrets. Among those were the Counter Intelligence Corps (C.I.C.), the U.S. Army’s oldest intelligence gathering apparatus, dating to 1917 when it was known as the Corps of Intelligence Police.  The C.I.C. had been charged with collecting intelligence on suspected Nazis, deciding their importance and detaining whomever seemed important since the invasion at Normandy.

But the job was daunting.

During Patton’s famous surge to Bayonne in 1944,  Third Army covered more than 30 miles a day and Nazis were literally everywhere. The Osenberg List made things a little easier.

The Toilet Papers

In March, 1945, a month before the German surrender, a Polish lab technician at Bonn University found an crumpled list stuffed into a school toilet. That list, later named the Osenberg List for Werner Osenberg who headed Hitler’s Military Research Association, had the names of every scientist, engineer and technician recalled by The Reich to join a concentrated effort to defeat the enemy with technological weaponry. How this lab technician realized its importance is a mystery to me, but it eventually found its way into the hands of M16 [16] and one Maj. Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.S. Army Ordance in London.

Staver used the Osenberg List to compile his own list of Nazi rocket scientists and Werner von Braun topped the list. Von Braun pioneered the development of Hitler’s V-1 and V-2 rockets, the first cruise missiles ever made, which reigned death and terror on London during the Flying Bomb Blitz. 8,000 V-1′s and 1,200 V-2′s were launched against London during the war, kiling nearly 8,600 civilians and military personnel. Countless others were wounded or disfigured. Another 1,200 missiles were launched against Antwerp. Even after von Braun’s escape (to preempt Soviet capture) his industrial facility at Mittlewerk in Nordhausen (always well stocked with slave labor) continued to manufacture his lethal rockets. Clearly a guy to be spared the hangman’s noose.

And he was.

Four months after his capture by U.S. Armed Forces on May 2, 1945, von Braun and seven cronies found themselves at the U.S. Army installation at Fort Bliss, Texas on an indefinite reassignment. His V-2 rockets, parts, machinery and equipment had been stealthily removed from Mittlewerk and shipped to (where else?) Texas where they were reassembled and put back into production. Less than a year later, on April 16, 1946, the first V-2 rocket was launched in the United States. That launch was followed in successive years by the Hermes, Titan, Atlas, Mercury Redstone and Jupiter programs which eventually launched Americans into space and created a nationalistic fervor so deafening it drowned out the fact that our accomplishments were due entirely to Hitler’s top scientists.

von Braun’s dossier, like the dossiers of thousands of Nazis who would soon to appear at our shores, were ably cleansed by the J.O.I.A. So much so that von Braun was made first Director of NASA’s initial Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Today folks have nothing but praise for the guy. And most people actually believe it was Yankee know-how that put a man on the moon.

Not surprisingly, von Braun’s wartime dossier was never included in the Name Files released by the C.I.A. Funny how these things get misplaced.

The Osenberg List was a gold mine. It included the names of engineers, physicists, chemists, technicians and other top minds who held the potential to benefit the West, or offer a catastrophic setback if obtained by the Soviets. When obtained by Major Staver in London, he immediately cabled Col. Joel Holmes at the Pentagon with his plans to interrogate Hitler’s rocket scientists. Staver’s plan was greatly expanded and Operation Overcast was born.

All this makes sense from a military standpoint. And its significance is often blithely dismissed with: “If we didn’t get him the Soviets would” But of far more importance was the diminished control of our Executive Branch.  By 1945 the Executive Branch was at best tolerated by the Pentagon. Even General Eisenhower,  the celebrated Supreme Commander who orchestrated the Allied victory in Europe and replaced Harry Truman as the first Republican president since Herbert Hoover,  was patently ignored when he insisted there be “no dealings with the Nazis.” By 1945 civilian government had become an anachronism, a quaint experiment with dubious qualifications to run an empire.

And we were clearly in the empire business.

Gen. Jack Ripper

To quote General Ripper, Stanley Kubrick’s insane general who laments democratically elected officials while plunging the world into nuclear destruction: “They have neither the time, the training nor the inclination for strategic thought.”

Such was the thinking at the time. And such was the thinking that led to our military dictatorship. By the time the Executive Branch realized what had happened it was far too late. Eisenhower’s ballyhooed warning of a “military-industrial complex” was as prescient as the lookout on the Titanic yelling: “Iceberg ahead!”

Truman was the one asleep at the wheel. And he was chosen for that very purpose.

Operation Overcast was the precursor to Operation Paperclip and it was initiated by the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff on July 19, 1945, ostensibly to aid the war effort against the Japanese. But its main objective was to reap the intellectual spoils of Hitler’s defeat, and prevent the Soviets from gaining the advantage. Overcast relocated Nazi scientists, chemists, physicists and engineers to Bavaria where they would be safe from the Russians.

What we have at the close of World War II is the adolescence of American Nazism. Yes, Nazi operatives were rife in America from the 1930’s onward. Yes the Republican Party was heavily funded and influenced by the Nazis throughout that period. Yes, Prescott Bush and others attempted a coup to unseat F.D.R. But that was just the opening act. The critical juncture of American history is 1945. That’s the point when elements of the American military unhinge from civiliarn rule and meld with the Nazi high command to build a global empire. It’s at this moment, a moment made imminent by the concentration of military power overseas, that America enters a new age. an age that becomes darker every day in barbarous acts that seem almost surreal to those who remember our lost republic.

In his letter to the Washington Post the day after J.F.K.’s murder, Truman seemed to realize the monster he created: “I never had any thought that when I set up the C.I.A. that it would be injected into peacetime cloak and dagger operations… I…would like to see the CIA be restored to its original assignment as the intelligence arm of the President…and that its operational duties be terminated or properly used elsewhere.”

But he’s really trying to wash his hands of responsibility. He never mentions that he approved more than 80 “peacetime cloak and dagger operations” during his presidency and that he ceded de facto control of the Executive Branch to the C.I.A. and the military.

After all, he was just a simple man from Missouri.

(to be continued)

[1] Truman’s order expressly excluded anyone found “to have been a member of the Nazi Party, and more than a nominal participant in its activities, or an active supporter of Nazi militarism”

[2] “Who Killed Franklin D. Roosevelt?” L. Fletcher Prouty (Mr. X in Oliver Stone’s JFK)

[3] ODESSA has been highly publicized in such films as The Odessa File and Marathon Man, but suffice it to say that ODESSA was a secret Nazi organization formed toward the end of Hitler’s Reich to relocate and conceal tens of thousands of Waffen SS, Nazi war criminals and mass murderers to Argentina, Paraguay, South Africa, Madrid and Egypt using a billion dollars in gems, currencies and gold derived from the fillings of gassed Jews which was deposited into Swiss banks to fund Hitler’s vision of a global fascist empire.

[4] “Bloody Treason” Neol Twyman, pg. 569

[5] Richard Breitman, Norman Goda, Timothy Naftali, and Robert Wolfe, U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis, (Washington, DC: National Archive Trust Fund Board, 2004), 377.

[6] Hunt obtained the first copy of the Zagruder film, even before the FBI

[7] “Bloody Treason” Noel Twyman, pg 328

[8] Augsburg was described in a CIA assessment in 1952 as “honest and idealist…enjoys good food and wine…unprejudiced mind”

[9] “The CIA and Nazi War Criminals, National Security Archive Electronic Debriefing Book No. 146 Edited by Tamara Feinstein, February 4, 2005 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB146/  b) the CIA clearly knew of Eichmann’s whereabouts before his capture in 1960 despite the agency’s purported surprise at the time and efforts to distance themselves in the released documents; a memo dated March 19, 1958 (accidentally?) included in the documents released by the CIA, written by a German secret service operative to the CIA, gives Eichmann’s exact location in Argentina and explains that he had been living there since 1952 under the pseudonym Ricardo Clement (Klement). In a memorandum documented in “Hitler’s Shadow: New Information on Major Nazi Figures” pg 13, by Chief of CIA’s Near East and Africa Division subunit-2 and cleared by the CIA’s General Counsel, Larry Houston, the agency’s position vis-à-vis Eichmann is made crystal clear: “while CIA has a continuing interest in the whereabouts and activites of individuals such as Eichmann , we are not in the business of apprehending war criminals, hence in no position to take and active role in [locating him].”

[10] The CIA took special care to protect Globke as he was closely linked to Barbie and also Undersecretary of State under West Germany’s Chancellor Adenaur after the war. Exposing the Globke-Barbie connection would expose the entire fiction of de-Nazification and the seamless bond between the CIA and Nazi criminals. When Life magazine acquired Eichmann’s memoirs they omitted all reference to Globke at Allen Dulles “request.”

[11] http://promoteliberty.wordpress.com/tag/joint-intelligence-objectives-agency/

[12] During his term in office, President Eisenhower was repeatedly attacked by the John Birch Society and other fascist organizations for being, of all things, communist. The rhetoric against Eisenhower made it clear that Nazis sympathizers within the Republican Party were looking for a very different candidate in 1960.

[13] “Chap 1, CIA’s Berlin Base, footnote 6

[14] For more on the Union Bank, W. Averill Harriman, Prescott Bush and Fritz Thyseen, see “The Ascent of American Fascism” 

[15] “The International History Review” XIV 2, May 1992 Chap: “John Deane, W. Averill Harrimann, the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the ‘Reversal of Cooperation’ with the Soviet Union in 1945”

[16] According to the“Report of Intervew with General Edwin L. Sibert on the Gehlen Organization” 26 March 1970 SECRET ReiGER, Sibert was well aware of Gehlen’s “employment” from June 1945 on and never cleared it with General Eisenhower, General Bradley or General Smith.

4 thoughts on “1945

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